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this family of diseases has issues with butyrate. where does butyrate come from? it comes from the beneficial bacteria in our guts. how do we get these bacteria in our guts to make the butyrate? probiotics and prebiotics (bugs and bug food). low butyrate also causes colon cancer. heads up on that

these guys muse about doing just that -- manipulation of microbial synthesis

Determinants of Reduced Genetic Capacity for Butyrate Synthesis by the Gut Microbiome in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Conclusions: Reduced butyrate-synthetic capacity of the microbiota is more evident in CD than UC and may relate to reduced fibre intake. The results suggest that simple replacement of butyrate per se may be therapeutically inadequate, whereas manipulation of microbial synthesis, perhaps by dietary means, may be more appropriate.
butyrate shortage sets off cascade of events. anaerobic environment looses it's integrity....then off to the races. my bold

Summary: Under normal conditions, β-oxidation of butyrate consumes oxygen in colonocytes and maintains the anaerobic environment in the lumen. Depletion of butyrate-producing bacteria results in anaerobic glycolysis in colonocytes and increases oxygen diffusion into the lumen, leading to a luminal facultative anaerobe expansion. Dysbiosis in IBD is characterized by the reduced abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus) and an increase of the phylum Proteobacteria (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae).

The overall structure of the gut mycobiome differs markedly in IBD patients, particularly Crohn's disease (CD), compared with healthy individuals. An increase in the genus Candida is a major contributory factor in the alteration of the mycobiome in Japanese CD patients, but an increase in the genus Saccharomyces is characteristic in Western patients.
it's best to grow your population of gut butyrate producers, esp the bifid family of bugs, to rectify butyrate shortages. another thing would be to ramp up ingestion of butter, real butter. real butter is packed with butyrate. i would not use this as the primary treatment for low butyrate, but add it to an ongoing program to increase the all-important bifid bugs. me and mine take 2-4 tablespoons per day
inulin fiber increases butyrate producers, helps with leaky gut

massive paper, just grabbed a few clips to paste. my bold

Butyrate and Dietary Soluble Fiber Improve Neuroinflammation Associated With Aging in Mice

Of note, inulin is a soluble dietary fiber that increases butyrate-producing bacteria (21). Inulin belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans and is considered a prebiotic (22). Studies have specifically demonstrated that inulin is beneficial for age-related inflammation, as a nutritional supplement with inulin increased innate immunity and protection against infections in elderly people (23). Thus, an increase in butyrate through added soluble fiber such as inulin could counterbalance the age-related microbiota dysbiosis, and potentially lead to neurological benefits.

Butyrate and other SCFAs exert their effects through HDAC inhibition, but are also used as an energy source and can bind G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are involved in the resolution of inflammation in the gut

There were, however, effects of diet in the colon for Tjp2 and trending effects for Tjp1 and Ocln in that high fiber diet increased all of the genes, indicating a potential beneficial change in gut permeability. These findings concur with previous studies indicating the ability of butyrate to upregulate tight junction proteins (51).
this guy does a nice writeup on inulin. bonus points for him covering the all important bifid family of bugs, prolific butyrate producers. my bold

Inulin And Detox Explanations Of Its Action


But that's not all.Inulin has prebiotic functions because the gel that inulin forms in the stomach is fibrous in nature.As we know, fibres are not assimilated during their transit through the digestive tract.It is found intact in the colon.

When it emerges in the colon, the inulin gel constitutes a nourishing substrate for the intestinal flora, mainly the bifidobacteria so precious to health.The bifidobacteria, which are probiotics (definition:elements beneficial to life) feed on this inulin gel.

This is why this contribution is characterised as "pre" biotic: they are the nourishing co-factors of probiotics such as bifidobacteria, whose quantity can increase up to 50% in the presence of inulin.
new paper published. whole thing is a good read. pasting the excellent explanation of the chain reaction initiated from a low number of butyrate/scfa producing bacteria.

we can work on that. the bifid bacteria family are prolific butyrate producers and feeding them inulin really gets them going.

The decreased level of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria, given their role in regulating the differentiation of Treg and Teff cells, leads to a dysregulation in the balance between these cell types and to an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines [50,51]. The disturbances lead to mucosal layer damage, resulting in a compromised barrier function [11].

This facilitates bacterial infiltration, triggering an inflammatory cascade against the invading bacteria [52]. Additionally, pathobionts, as Proteobacteria, normally harmless bacteria that can exhibit pathogenic traits under specific conditions, thrive and proliferate in the inflamed environment [52]. This perpetuates inflammatory conditions, enabling adapted pathobionts to persist and further inhibiting the growth of commensal bacteria [52,53]. The depletion of commensals, emergence of pathobionts, and disruption in immune regulation culminate in a chronic inflammatory state [53].
this 2024 paper names some specific bugs. all of them are readily available. i take almost all of them daily.

Emerging Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis–Induced Pain

Probiotic use decreases the occurrence of acute complications and pain associated with UC.68 Specifically, they may increase the time between flares and reduce symptom severity.69 Randomized, controlled trials report an increase in the number of clinical remissions compared with placebo.70 Beneficial bacterial strains include Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus.71 In some cases, probiotic use performed comparably to the 5-ASA agent mesalamine.68-79 Interestingly, oral butyrate add-on therapy to mesalamine lowers fecal calprotectin levels and improves UC symptoms, thus promoting remission.