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Terminal ileitis is not always Crohn’s disease

Lady Organic

Staff member
Chronic inflammation in the terminal ileum (TI) suggests a cause for the patient’s symptoms, especially when the clinical suspicion is Crohn’s disease (CD). Clinic, laboratory, endoscopic, histopathological evaluation of patients is required for the diagnosis of CD. The most frequent localization of CD is the TI. There are many other diseases affecting the TI. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) intake as well as other pathological conditions such as lymphoid hyperplasia, intestinal infections, lymphoma, infections and ulcerative colitis (UC) can mimic CD terminal ileitis.
In this article the authors discuss these conditions, firstly in terms of differential diagnosis, and point out the facts that the clinicians must consider when they have a patient with terminal ileitis. Misdiagnosis of CD may be harmful to these patients because of inadequate response to therapy and occasionally an unnecessary operation may be performed. At the same time, the patients require appropriate treatment for their condition.